Frequently asked questions on our treatments

On this page you can find answers and precise explanations to the most frequently asked questions about treatments on behalf of patients. The questions and answers are divided in areas of interest, summarized on the left side of the page

First check up

1. What happens during your first check up in our studio?

The first check up is essential to get to know each other, gain trust, evaluate what the main problems are and to understand what specific tests should be carried out. At Alfadental we often require specific tests such as photographs, x-rays, CAT, microbiological examinations, polysomnography, allergy tests, study models, and / or specialist tests. All this is necessary to obtain a complete, effective and direct care plan.

2. Who carries out the first check up?

It is carried out by dental professionals who assess necessary examinations and establish a treatment-intervention care plan. The hygienist assesses oral health and explains what is causing the oral problems, giving the patient his first instructions for a healthier and cleaner mouth. The orthodontist evaluates the need for orthodontic appliances

3. What happens during the first check up?

The dentist assesses problems with the help of magnifying glasses, a mirror and probe and by listening to the patient’s complaints. Very often more specific tests are necessary in order to determine the presence or the entity of the problems that the patient describes.

Photographs and videos

1. What are the facial and mouth photographs for?

Photographs help the dental professionals analyze the case, studying the best solution for each mouth area, also giving the patient the possibility to follow up on the improvements after every treatment.
The dentist studies the case as a whole: examining and comparing study models with the smile line according to mouth and lip movement. He then gives the dental technician precise data in order for him to create precise prostheses that are aesthetically and functionally appropriate.
Photographs and videos, taken with specific cameras and video cameras, showing mouth and facial functions are now considered essential diagnostic tools for the resolution of dental problems.


1. What are x-rays?

X-rays are scans that allow us to see through tissues thanks to certain rays, showing tissue anatomy and giving us the possibility to find problems that need to be taken care of.

2. Why is it important to take x-rays?

X-rays show us possible problems and their severity before carrying out treatments. For example, they can reveal caries that would not have been spotted with the naked eye, also showing their depth. It also allows us to see the bone levels around the teeth to intercept periodontitis or to better evaluate before periodontal treatment.

3. Can treatments be performed without radiographic investigations?

General dental checkups or treatments do not require orthopantomography (panoramic radiography), while caries and periodontitis individuation require intraoral x-rays.

4. Are X-rays bad for your health?

Dental x-rays are easily tolerated by our body due to their low amount of rays.

5. What is orthopantomography?

Orthopantomography and, depending on what problems are found during the first checkup: bite wings, x-rays, periapical X-rays, intraoral x-rays, teleradiography, CAT.

6. What is orthopantomography?

Orthopantomography, or overview, is a routine x-ray. It gives us a panoramic view of all the teeth, the maxilla, the mandible, the maxillary sinuses and the mandibular nerve canal. Thanks to the overview we are presented with a general picture that allows us to immediately individuate problems such as tooth apex lesions (granulomas or cysts), advanced periodontal problem, wisdom teeth malpositioning and even some types of tumors. However, there is a shortcoming. Due to the fact that it transforms what is three-dimensional in two-dimensions, it varies size, creating overlaps. As a consequence of the dimension variation it does not show small details, hiding problems that are in their initial phase or that are hardly visible like infiltrations in fillings.

7. What are bite wing x-rays?

These x-rays, which are performed in our studio, allow us to see the posterior and anterior teeth crowns clearly. They are used to research and diagnose: interdental caries and also to determine the presence of caries under already filled cavities ( otherwise invisible).
These x-rays should be taken every 2-3 years on patients with low caries risk and once a year for patients with high caries risk for prevention. They have no image distortion, therefore they show tissues on a 1: 1 ratio.

8. What are periapical x-rays?

They are a specific type of x-ray which screens one or more teeth showing the entire tooth structure (the crown and the root), the bone levels that surround the tooth with the possible bone loss and the presence or absence of lesions at the tooth’s apex. Just like bite wing x-rays these also create images on a 1:1 ratio.

9. What is an intraoral x-ray?

It is the set of periapical radiographs made on all teeth. It is carried out in case of a widespread periodontal problem, to establish a correct diagnosis and a complete and precise site-specific treatment plan.

10. What is latero-lateral teleradiography?

It is an X-ray required by the orthodontist. It allows him to see the position of the mandible in relation to the maxilla, tooth inclination inside the bone, tooth closure, facial bone shapes and the bone structures between jaw and skull.

11. What is a maxillary CAT?

The CAT, or computerized axial tomography, is a radiological examination that allows us to see the maxillary bones in 3 dimensions: height, width and depth. It is performed in case of an important lesion, such as a cyst, or to assess the level, the quantity and quality of the mandibular or maxillary bone before inserting an implant.

Care plan

1. What is a treatment plan?

It is the whole course of treatments that are necessary to completely restore mouth health.

2. How is it carried out?

With the use of photographs, X-rays, study models and with the advice of various specialists (more or less necessary), the dentist assesses the patient’s needs and objectives, setting a list of the necessary procedures and priorities.

3. Can a treatment plan be carried out without in-depth examinations such as x-rays?

No. Diagnostic tests are essential to prepare a complete and professional care plan.

4. Can prosthetic treatment planning be carried out without detailed examinations such as models and photos?

No, it is not possible.

Oral hygiene

1. What is oral hygiene?

Oral hygiene is very important to maintain oral health, it helps prevent tooth decay, halitosis, gingivitis and periodontitis. The main objective of our studio, with all patients, is to improve their level of oral hygiene because it is the only way we can guarantee long-term health.

2. What is the goal with hygiene?

Its goal is to completely remove Bio film bacteria or oral plaque daily and to cyclically remove tartar formations with the help of an oral hygienist.

3. What is Bio film bacteria?

It is a layer of whitish, slimy bacterial aggregation that mainly forms on the tooth’s gum line, between teeth and on the premolar and molar chewing areas.

4. Why does plaque cause caries?

The bacteria inside plaque feeds on the sugars we ingest by lowering the mouth’s PH to acidity. This causes the tooth’s enamel to demineralize creating the holes we call caries. Caries mainly form between teeth or in chewing areas.

5. Why does plaque cause gingivitis?

Because the bacteria inside plaque releases toxins that attack the gums. These get inflamed and cause pain.

6. Why does plaque cause periodontitis?

The chronic inflammation caused by the bacterial toxins stimulates bone resorption cells into activity. Failing to remove plaque from the gingival sulcus for a long time can lead to periodontitis.

7. Why does plaque cause halitosis?

Because by feeding on certain types of proteins, the bacteria produce sulfur-rich gases, such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide. These gases are characterized by a nauseating smell even in very low quantities.

8. How do I get rid of plaque?

Plaque cannot “stick” to teeth, it simply rests on it. This characteristic renders it easily removable with two tools: the manual or electric toothbrush, dental floss or pipe cleaner. Using toothpastes and mouthwashes is very important, however it is completely secondary compared to using the correct tools.

9. How long does it take for plaque to form?

It starts forming a few hours after having brushed your teeth and the less they are cleaned the more bacteria is formed, becoming more and more toxic for the body.

10. What is tartar?

Tartar is a hard aggregate composed by: saliva mineral salts and calcified plaque bacteria.

11. How is it removed?

The only way to remove it is with a hygienist who does the job professionally using ultrasonic and mechanical tools.

12. What causes tartar to form inside our mouth?

Tartar, is rough, unlike enamel and as a result it creates a much more adherent surface for bacteria, making it a lot more difficult to be removed and consequently causing infection and inflammation. Furthermore, tartar causes gingival inflammation, because it constantly traumatizes the gingiva due to its rough surface. This leads to gingivitis which can degenerate into periodontitis if left untreated.

13. How often should tartar be removed?

The time that passes in between each scaling varies from person to person. Usually a checkup should be scheduled every six months, in order to evaluate whether a scaling is necessary. However, in other cases, in patients who have a high mineral salt saliva (and therefore produce more) or in patients with a periodontal problem, the checkups should be performed every 2-3 months.

14. Is tartar removal painful?

Scaling is completely painless if a good level of oral health has been maintained. You may experience discomfort if the gums are inflamed or if you are sensitive to heat and cold. These issues should be investigated.


1. What are inlays?

Inlays are tooth reconstructions that become necessary when a conspicuous part of the tooth is missing due to a carious or non-carious pathology. These restorations are prepared by a dental technician using impressions. The impressions are taken previously by the dentist and show open cavities clearly. Compared to simple direct reconstruction, in bigger cavities it improves the tooth’s resistance and aesthetics

2. In what ways do inlays differ from a simple reconstruction?

The inlays guarantee a better sealing, a better adhesion in large cavities (due to expanded caries or dental fractures), avoid tooth devitalization and also differ because of the insertion of an endocanal pin.

3. How are inlays made?

After having removed all the carious tissues, a precision impression is taken by the dentist, which is then sent to the dental technician. The dental technician will make an exact counterpart in resin (or ceramic), which will adhere on to the tooth with precision.


1. What are they?

They are a preventive treatment which prevents caries formation for children.

2. When should they be be applied?

They should be applied in children at about 6 years of age with the aim of defending new permanent molars until the child grows and is able to preserve them with oral hygiene. However, they can also be applied as a preventive measure in adults, in areas that are difficult to clean and therefore at high risk.

3. How is sealant applied?

A very thin layer of protective material is applied on the tooth’s chewing surface (furrow), making it smooth and therefore reducing bacteria adhesion on to the tooth (therefore rendering it easier to clean it).

4. Does it hurt?

No, it is absolutely painless.

5. How long does it take to seal teeth?

Several seals can be applied in a single appointment depending on the patient’s patience.

6. At what age do I take my child to get teeth sealent?

At around 5-6 years of age to intercept their first permanent tooth eruption.

Dental veneers

1. What are veneers?

Indirect veneers are very thin sheets of composite resin or ceramic, which are applied directly on the tooth.
Direct veneers can be built directly on the tooth until they reach the desired tooth shape and color.

2. When are veneers used?

They are used to achieve perfect front teeth aesthetics when these are worn, stained, dark, broken, eroded by acid reflux or just because of their imperfect shape or positioning.

3. Is applying veneers painful?

Absolutely not.

3. Does the whole tooth need to be filed down to apply veneers?

No, unlike crowns, veneers require a very light tooth filing or in many cases they can even be done without touching the tooth.

4. How to preserve veneers in time?

Ceramic veneers last over time if a good level of oral hygiene is maintained and periodic checkups are carried out.
Direct and indirect resin veneers need to be polished over time.
You have to be careful not to tear, cut or bite your nails.

5. How long does it take to apply them?

The job is completed in just two sessions on all the affected teeth.

6. Quanto ci vuole a metterle?
In sole due sedute si ha il lavoro terminato su tutti i denti che le necessitano.


1. What is endodontics?

Endodontics is the dentistry branch that regards the pulp, the tooth’s internal soft tissue. This treatment becomes necessary when the pulp necrotizes or becomes inflamed due to an untreated caries or a trauma. It is often called devitalization. It consists in eliminating the inner tooth’s tissue and its roots, disinfecting perfectly and sealing it with inert material closing the tooth. Depending on how much dental crown is missing, the tooth may have to be closed with a direct reconstruction, with an inlay or with a crown.

2. Is the endodontic treatment painful (devitalization)?

Not at any stage.

3. Is it a long treatment?

Devitalization usually requires four sessions:

• opening and removing compromised tissues
• disinfecting root canals with specific products
• filling and sealing the root canals
• rebuilding the tooth’s crown.

4. Can a devitalized tooth decay?

Yes, just like a non-devitalized tooth. The difference is that it is painless.

5. Does devitalization have contraindications?

Teeth may darken with age and become slightly more fragile, therefore making it important to undergo periodic checks.

6. I have a devitalized tooth that has lost color. What can I do?

It is possible to perform an intra-canal bleaching and / or to cover the tooth with a ceramic veneer.

Prosthetic crowns

1. What are prosthetic crowns?

Prosthetic crowns are applied directly on to the tooth: they are used when the natural crown is compromised to the point where it cannot be restored with a reconstruction or an inlay.

2. Is it painful to apply prosthetic crowns?

No. A temporary prosthesis is necessary as a transition to allow the gingiva to adapt.

3. How are they aesthetically? (What do they look like)

New materials and new techniques ensure that the crowns are invisible and unrecognizable compared to natural teeth. Also, using Dr. Ignazio Loi’s “oriented preparation” BOPT technique, the gingiva will be perfect like on a natural tooth.

4. What does "oriented preparation" mean?

It is an innovative crown building method that allows the crown to be perfectly in line with the tooth’s root (about 1 mm below the gum), without causing gingival retraction, which happens using any other method, exposing the “black ring”.

5. What is a crown made of?

Based on aesthetic and functional needs that are evaluated on each intervention, the crown can be made of:

• Resin, used for temporaries
• Metal-ceramic, aesthetic and functional crowns, also the most used
• Zirconium
• disilicate


1. What is a bridge?

A bridge is a fixed prosthesis built on multiple teeth that have a gap between them left by one or more lost teeth. It consists in creating crowns on teeth or implants that connect to one other. When a tooth is missing between two natural teeth, if the bone structure allows it, an implant is placed to preserve the healthy teeth.

2. Is it painful to apply a bridge?

Not at all.

Removable prosthesis

1. What is a removable prosthesis?

A removable prosthesis is a custom made prosthesis which allows s to restore our missing teeth. It can be total (denture), on an entire arch (upper maxillary and / or lower mandibular) or partial, if it restores one or more missing teeth.

2. How is a total removable prosthesis made?

Total removable prostheses are made with resin. They adhere directly to the palate and on to the jaw’s mucosa. They appear very natural, both aesthetically and phonetically thanks to new materials. Alfadental technicians create very stable prosthesis making them hardly noticeable.

3. How long does a removable prosthesis last?

A removable prosthesis can last for a life time, however its maintenance is very important. It should be removed and cleaned after every meal. It has to be rebased every few years in order to change its shape according to the bone and gingiva changes. This will restore its stability, avoiding that it may break.

4. How is a partial removable prosthesis made?

Partial removable prostheses are made with resin or with flexite (metal-free) with built in teeth, or composed by a metal core covered by aesthetic resin with built in teeth. The partial removable prosthesis attaches to the remaining teeth with clasps (metal or aesthetic in flexite).

5. What are the pros and cons of prosthesis that involve clasps on natural teeth?

An excellent stability thanks to the clasps and attachments, but residual elements undergo a lot of stress.

6. Is there an alternative to metal clasps?

Yes, they can also be made in flexite, which is transparent and almost invisible.

7. How long does a removable prosthesis last?

A removable prosthesis can last for a life time, however its maintenance is very important. It should be removed and cleaned after every meal. It has to be rebased every few years in order to change its shape according to the bone and gingiva changes. This will restore its stability, avoiding that it may break.

Semi-fixed prosthesis

1. What is a semi-fixed prosthesis?

Semi-fixed or “overdenture” prostheses are made when there are no teeth left on one of the dental arches. 2 or 4 implants are inserted and a prothesis of the entire arch is then applied on these implants to increase stability.

2. What are the pros and cons of a semi-fixed prosthesis?

Perfect stability and functionality, very simple maintenance.

Fixed prosthesis

1. What is a fixed prosthesis?

Fixed prostheses can be on natural teeth or implants.

  • On natural teeth:
    • Crowns on a single tooth
    • Veneers
    • Bridges (on two or more roots a prosthesis with multiple teeth is applied, which connects distant roots)
  • On implants:
    • Single crown
    • Bridges
    • Full arch


A Fixed prosthesis on natural teeth is when one or more compromised teeth are covered.
Fixed prosthesis on implants replace one or more missing teeth (even an entire arch). Implants are inserted into the bone and prostheses are then screwed or cemented on the implants: single crown in case of a single tooth or a bridge if connecting two or more implants is necessary.

2. What are the pros and cons of fixed prosthesis on implants?

Being able to chew just like having natural teeth without the discomfort of having to place and remove the prosthesis and without having to rebase it over time.

3. Is applying implants painful?

No, everything is done under local anesthesia. It is painless..

4. How long does it take to apply the implants?

It depends on your body’s response but the crown can usually be applied 3-4 months after the implant has been inserted.

5. If I remove a tooth to place an implant, will I have no tooth for 3 months?

No, there are immediate temporary prosthetic solutions that allow you to fill in the gap.

6. Can anyone have an implant?

Except for rare exceptions, yes.

7. What materials are the implants made of?

They are made of Titanium which integrates with natural bone very well.

8. How long does an implant last?

If maintained with periodic hygiene and regular checkups, a lifetime.

9. How do I maintain oral hygiene where implants are positioned?

Just as you would with a natural tooth, with a toothbrush, floss and pipe cleaners.

Teeth whitening

1. What is teeth whitening?

Teeth whitening is a cosmetic treatment where pigmenting residues that get trapped in dental micropores and make a tooth yellowish are removed. It is carried out with a bleaching gel that is applied to the tooth’s surface.

2. How is teeth whitening carried out?

Dental bleaching is carried out through the use of professional products based on peroxides, which break down the pigments that accumulate in dental micropores, when it is applied on the tooth’s surface.

3. Is teeth whitening painful?

No, it can give a temporary sensibility that recedes immediately if treated promptly.

4. Does tooth whitening make teeth weaker?

No, it does not affect the the enamel’s structure.

5. How long does it take to whiten teeth?

There are 2 bleaching methods:

  • In the studio, with the use of a concentrated product and professional hands it takes about one hour.
  • It can also be done at home by applying a product for about 14 nights with the help of a personalized mask, made out of an impression of the mouth itself. If there is a bit of sensitivity, stop immediately and apply a desensitising product instead of the bleaching agent for one night. It takes 3 hours for the whitening effect to develop and dental sensitivity usually manifests if the product is in contact with the teeth for more than 3 hours.
    6. How long does tooth whitening last?
    The duration varies in relation to the frequency in which pigmenting products such as coffee, tea, licorice or artichokes are ingested. Usually about 3 years, although the tooth’s color doesn’t become as yellow as when started.
6. How long does tooth whitening last?

The duration varies in relation to the frequency in which pigmenting products such as coffee, tea, licorice or artichokes are ingested. Usually about 3 years, although the tooth’s color doesn’t become as yellow as when started.


1. What are caries?

Caries is when a loss of tooth mineral occurs. This is caused by plaque bacteria which produces acids that create “holes” in the enamel deteriorating the tooth’s structure.

2. Why do caries sometimes hurt?

Inside the tooth’s dental pulp there are numerous nerve cells which can create pain if solicited or inflamed by bacteria.

3. How are caries treated?

Depending on the progression of a caries and how much tooth has been compromised, a simple reconstruction is sufficient. If the tooth’s pulp is affected, a devitalization has to be performed and if a large part of the crown has been destroyed, an inlay or a crown (capsule) is used.

4. I seem to have a caries in my mouth. How long can I wait before treating it?

Caries is a process destined to degenerate if not blocked. This can lead to discomfort, pain and more invasive and expensive treatments. It is important to carry out periodic checkups, to verify dental health and to intercept initial caries to avoid complications.

5. How do I realize I have caries?

Caries can be asymptomatic, but if you feel that a tooth is more sensitive to heat and cold, if it gives you “discomfort” and it hurts when you chew or if when you floss your teeth the dental floss breaks between teeth; book an appointment. There may be caries. Don’t wait for the pain!

The exact diagnosis of dental caries is made with oral radiographs and an objective test.

6. Are milk teeth caries treated in children?

They are often treated because milk teeth “make space” for permanent teeth at a very specific time. If a milk tooth is lost too early, the space that should be occupied by the permanent tooth is invaded by adjacent teeth and the permanent tooth may grow in the wrong position (or remain included in the bone).

7. What is baby bottle tooth decay?

In order for young children to fall asleep, very often, they are left with a bottle or a dummy with honey or other sugary remedies on it. This raises the possibility of caries to form on all the teeth, starting from the ones behind including the anterior ones. It is very important to avoid this method or stop doing it as soon as possible.


1. What is gingivitis?

Gingivitis occurs when the gums that surround teeth get inflamed. It is caused by the bacteria contained in plaque and tartar which irritates the gum and causes it to become red and swollen, bringing discomfort and bleeding at the slightest stimulation. It can happen with dental floss or even with the use of a toothbrush.

2. Why do gums hurt?

Because the tissues are suffering and are irritated.

3. How is gingivitis treated?

Just as cuts on our skin heal, the gums have the ability to heal spontaneously. However, this is prevented by plaque and tartar. Removing plaque daily and having professional oral hygiene regularly will solve the problem immediately. Using a toothbrush or floss every day in the right way will eliminate the problem within a few days.

4. How do I realize I have gingivitis?

If you feel you have swollen gums, if you feel general irritation in your mouth or if you pass dental floss or a toothbrush and blood comes out, then your gums are inflamed.

5. How can I prevent gingivitis?

Gingivitis is caused by plaque bacteria and mechanical traumas caused by tartar. Maintaining a good level of oral hygiene at home, using a toothbrush and an interdental brush (or dental floss), having frequent professional hygiene in the studio will all help you avoid gingivitis.


1. What is periodontitis?

Periodontitis is a disease that causes bone support loss. It is caused by bacteria called “periodontopathogens”, which colonize bacterial plaque. Like other plaque bacteria, these “periodontopathogenic” bacteria also inflame gums but, unlike others, they also cause the alveolar bone to deteriorate (the bone on which teeth are attached). As the bone is destroyed, the plaque colonizes the pocket (the space between the tooth and the gum). The deeper the bacteria goes, the more bone will be destroyed.

2. Does periodontitis hurt?

No, in the vast majority of cases it is asymptomatic. It causes constant discomfort in the mouth but patients often get used to it and don’t even notice it. This allows the pathology to proceed subtly for years.

3. How is periodontitis treated?

Periodontitis is a complex disease and each case must be scrupulously analyzed. This must be done with the help of radiographs and “mouth mapping” executed by the dentist and / or hygienist. However, removing the bacteria that is causing the problem is a must. This is done via a targeted professional subgingival oral hygiene, that can last up to six appointments.

4. How do I realize I have periodontitis?

It is difficult to realize that you have a periodontal problem by yourself because it is painless and manifests itself clearly only when the bone that supports the tooth is so little that the tooth moves. However, by making regular checkups, we will monitor your situation and evaluate whether the disease is present or if you are “at risk”.

5. Can bone loss be restored?

Often bone loss cannot be restored: it is therefore important to intercept it as soon as possible. However, there are conditions where it is possible to perform regenerative bone surgery.

6. What is regenerating bone surgery?

In some conditions, when the bone peak between teeth has not been completely deteriorated and the tooth has not completely lost its bone, it is possible to bio stimulate the body in to producing bone where it has been lost. This can be done with a totally painless and uncomplicated procedure.

7. What is resective surgery?

Resective surgery consists in moving the gingival margin towards the root in order to reduce the space left by bone loss between the tooth and the gum. It is performed in order to make cleaning easier and to defend the gingival sulcus from a new periodontal infection and further bone loss.

8. I have a periodontal problem. How long can I wait before treating it?

Periodontitis has a chronic course and, if not interrupted, it proceeds by deteriorating more and more bone. The longer you wait, the more invasive the procedures will be. There will be less bone and less probabilities of saving the tooth.

9. How can I prevent periodontitis?

Like the bacteria that cause simple gingivitis and tooth decay, even “periodontopathogenic” bacteria live in plaque. The pathology can be eradicated in the bud or even before it begins by simply using toothbrushes, pipe cleaners and threads in the right way. By eliminating tartar, on which plaque builds up, through professional dental hygiene, the pathology can be stopped. The “periodontopathogenic” bacteria cannot cause a pathology if they do not find an ideal habitat (that is, the plaque that remains in the same place for a long time).


1. What is halitosis?

Bad breath is a widespread condition and can originate from many factors. In 85-90% of cases it is caused by bacteria that forms on the tongue, between teeth and in caries which produce sulfur-rich gases. These gases cause a very unpleasant smell which affect our social relations.

2. How is halitosis treated?

Very often halitosis is caused by insufficient daily dental and tongue hygiene: it can be improved immediately by using a toothbrush in the right way, and by using thread: things that a hygienist can easily explain to you. Sometimes bad breath can be caused by caries or a periodontal problem: if it persists despite improved hygiene, talk to us.

3. How do I realize I have bad breath?

We often find ourselves suffering from it when someone points it out to us. It is a good idea, however, when brushing your teeth to bring your whole tongue out and see if there is a white or yellow or dark patina covering it, as this can surely be the cause of halitosis.

4. How can I prevent halitosis?

Good and constant oral hygiene carried out by a hygienist is the only weapon against halitosis.

Gum smile

1. What is a gum smile?

A gum smile, is a disproportion between the visible gingiva size and the tooth size. This imperfection can undermine our confidence while smiling and speaking. Very often it originates in the gum’s growth phase and it occurs when the gum covers part of the dental crown which, on the contrary, should be visible.

2. Is there a solution for gum smiling?

In many cases, gum smile is caused by an imperfect retraction of the gums
When the maxillary-mandible bones and teeth reach their final positions, the gums should retract exposing the tooth’s crown. Sometimes this does not happen and the gum covers a larger part of the tooth than it should. This is called “altered passive eruption”. If gum smile is caused by APE, then we have the solution for you: we uncover the tooth completely from the gum.

3. How do I realize I have a gum smile?

You realize you have a gum smile simply by looking in the mirror or looking at the photographs in which you smile.

4. How do I know if my gum smile is caused by altered passive eruption?

Have a checkup in our studio and with an intraoral X-ray you will find out immediately.

Gingival recession

1. What is gum recession?

Gingival recession is when the gingiva retracts causing part of the tooth’s root to be exposed. It causes a more or less important imperfection depending on the case. As the root is rich in nerve endings and is not covered by enamel, this may cause sensitivity to heat, cold, and even simple breathing or brushing.
Very often it is caused by using your toothbrush the wrong way or by using a hard bristled toothbrush.

2. How is gum recession treated?

Every gingival recession is an individual case and many parameters must be considered. Roots can be covered by repositioning the gum in to its correct position. If the enamel has been abraded, the abraded and exposed portion is coated with filling resins.

3. How do I realize I have one or more gum recessions?

If when you eat ice cream or you drink cold water, you have sensitivity and notice a “long tooth”, it is possible that there may be exposed roots due to gum recession. Recessions are sometimes asymptomatic. We will show them to you in the studio when you come for a checkup.

4. I have a gum recession. How long can I wait to solve the problem?

It is very important to treat gum recessions promptly by changing your brushing method or the toothbrush itself and covering the recession immediately, because:

• The sooner the intervention takes place, the less root needs to be covered.
• The root is not “hard” like the crown. It can be affected by caries (as it is easier for bacterial plaque to demineralize it) and is less resistant to toothbrush abrasion and food acids.
• Not having dental sensitivity greatly improves your life quality.

5. Once the gum recession is treated, can the root become exposed again?

With new brushing methods and our advice, the root will no longer be exposed.


1. What is bruxism?

Bruxism is a parafunction and its causes are still partially unknown. It is a condition in which there is an excessive tightening and rubbing of teeth, causing them to be consumed.

2. How do I know if I suffer from bruxism?

Do you suffer from headaches? Do you see your teeth getting shorter? If you look carefully in the mirror, does the upper part of your teeth look filed? You probably suffer from bruxism. Book an appointment in our studio and we will remove any doubts.

3. What does it lead to if I don’t treat it?

It will lead to teeth shrinking in size, increased periodontal risk, shorter duration of fillings, decreased vertical dimension, joint and muscle damage.

4. How is bruxism treated?

Damage can be repaired and subsequent damage can be prevented or blocked if the teeth are very / abraded. It is often useful to use a bite (mouthguard), specifically made to fit your mouth, using an imprint of your teeth.

Snoring with apneas

1. What is snoring?

Snoring is a very common and annoying condition. It is when an individual produces excessive noise while breathing during sleep. Sometimes snoring may be more than just noise, it could be a warning. Our body may not be resting properly. This could lead to irritability, perennial fatigue and drowsiness. In cases of high blood pressure, obesity and diabetes, snoring increases in the long run.

2. How do I notice that my snoring is not "just a noise" but a problem?

If when you wake up you constantly feel tired or sleepy, you are irritable or, an even more distinctive characteristic, you wake up during the night feeling as if you were short of breath, it is possible that you are not sleeping properly.

3. How is a sleeping disorder diagnosed?

With a simple exam called “polysomnography”. The exam takes place at home with a device given to you by a professional. The outcome is quick and safe.

4. How do you treat a sleeping disorder?

Thanks to the polysomnography we evaluate the cause and establish if the disorder is a consequence of obstruction (OSAS), meaning it is due to anatomical conditions that prevent natural air flow, or if it is linked to other problems that are out of dentist reach.

5. What does it mean if I have obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS)?

OSAS is the acronym for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, which causes severe snoring, awakenings or micro-alarms during our sleep. Whoever suffers from OSAS has multiple apneas during the night. This means the patient stops breathing, blocking tissue oxygenation and increasing blood pressure.

6. I snore. I've always snored. Why have the test done?

Sleeping is very important considering it allows our body and mind to regenerate. Sleep apnea affects daily life directly. Relating to people becomes difficult due to mood swings, irritability and drowsiness.
It significantly increases the risk of having a stroke, cardiovascular problems and the risk of car accidents.
A simple test can change your life from one day to another, making it better and longer.

7. How is obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) treated?

With the use of a specific bite that allows the air to pass freely again.